Diabetes Types & its Complications

The most common types of diabetes are type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. Type 1 diabetes (also known as diabetes mellitus) is an autoimmune disease in which immune cells attack and destroy the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas i.e., beta cells. The loss of insulin leads to the inability to regulate blood sugar levels. It can occur both by genetically and environmentally. Patients are usually treated with insulin-replacement therapy. High glucose in the blood may cause eye damage, nerve damage, and kidney damage, loss of sensation in sexual organs (sexual dysfunction). Diabetes increases the risk of various cardiovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease, heart attack, heart stroke and narrowing of arteries which reduces the blood flow through the arteries. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a disease characterized by high levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia). It starts as insulin resistance, which means our body can’t use insulin efficiently. Factors may include genetics, lack of exercise, and being overweight. In addition to this, people with diabetes have more chances to develop infections that may lead to allergies. Diabetes is the main cause for cardiovascular diseases, kidney failure, and blindness. Diabetes can also cause foot ulcers and hearing problems, people with diabetes have hearing impairment commonly.

Gestational diabetes is due to blocking of insulin hormones produced during pregnancy.

Symptoms, Diagnosis & Monitoring of Diabetes

Prediabetes has no symptoms, while type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes have symptoms like increased thirst, increased appetite, fatigue, unusual weight loss, blurred vision, fruity odor or breath. It can be diagnosed and monitored by following tests which are A1C or glycosylated hemoglobin test, fasting plasma glucose test, and oral glucose tolerance test. 

Current Trends & Advancements in Diabetes

Diabetes is a serious condition which still doesnt have a cure which makes new research, treatment, and management techniques an essential requirement. Over the past years, there have been considerable breakthroughs in understanding and preventing diabetes complications. While some research concentrates on generating artificial pancreas or engineering insulin-producing beta cells, some other researches are directed towards discovery of newer and long-term drug molecules, creating more efficient diets and emerging intensive treatment programs. Trends and developments on diabetes research is the need of the hour for fetching excellent management of this serious life-threatening disease. The development of science and technology has perceived the growth of a newer generation of nanomedicine in drugs advance.

Pediatric Diabetes

The most common type of diabetes which occurs in children is type 1 diabetes. It is a common chronic childhood disease, occurring in 1 in 350 children by age 18; the incidence has recently been increasing, particularly in children less than 5 yr. Although type 1 can occur at any age, it naturally expresses between age 4 yr and 6 yr or between 10 yr and 14 yr. Type 2 diabetes, once rare in children, has been increasing in frequency in parallel with the increase in childhood obesity (in children). It typically manifests after puberty, with the highest rate between age 15 yr and 19 yr (in adolescents).

Diabetes Nursing

One of the most significant features of diabetes management is the self-management of diabetes which can be effectively achieved, and complications prevented with the help and support of the nursing team. Diabetes specialist nurses play an essential role in screening diabetic persons, detecting early onset of diabetes, considering nutritional needs of the patient, promoting self-management, providing prevention advice, spreading awareness on diabetes and providing health education. It is very necessary for nurses to be well educated, trained and skilled sufficiently to be able to proficiently deliver care, support self-management and provide advice to diabetic persons.

Diabetes and Endocrinology

Diabetes is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period mainly due to insulin deficiency or resistance. Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, increased hunger, and weight loss. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications. Acute complications can comprise diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death. Serious long-term complications consist of cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.

Endocrinology is the branch of biology that deals with the study of the endocrine system, hormones, and its disorders. It also involves the study of growth and development, metabolism, digestion, tissue function and various other behavioral factors which are influenced by hormones. 

Sub Sessions: Diabetic Complications, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Metabolic Syndrome, Metabolic Disorders, Endocrine Disorders, Molecular Endocrinology, Diabetes Signs & Symptoms, Hypothyroidism, Hypoparathyroidism

Diabetes Ophthalmology

Diabetic retinopathy is a condition that occurs in people who have diabetes. It causes progressive damage to the retina, the light sensitive lining at the back of the eye. Diabetic retinopathy is a serious sight threatening complication of diabetes. Diabetic retinopathy occurs when these tiny blood vessels   leak blood and other fluids. This causes the retinal tissue to swell, resulting in cloudy or blurred vision. The condition usually affects both eyes. The longer a person has diabetes, the more likely they will develop   diabetic retinopathy. If left untreated, diabetic retinopathy can cause blindness.

Diabetes Biomarkers

"Biomarker", are designated "molecular marker" or a "signature particle". These markers give the degree of illness as they lay outside calmly. HbA1c is considered a biomarker for a risk factor that is for retinopathy, nephropathy and other vascular sicknesses. Biomarkers empower preventive measures to be connected at the subclinical stage and the reactions to preventive or helpful measures to be observed. Cases in the course of recent decades have yielded test sets, for the most part blood products and urine from an expansive classification of patients with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

Diabetic Medication

Diabetes medications are a common form of treatment for a person with diabetes. There are many different types of diabetes medicines or anti-diabetic drugs, and this includes insulin, which has its own area within the site. While every drug is unique in the way it works to help patients with diabetes retain their condition under control. The way in which they are directed can also vary, with some medicines taken orally and others injected directly into the blood. Most diabetes drugs are designed for people having type 2 diabetes who are incapable to control their blood sugar levels through strict diet and exercise alone. While insulin is the drug of choice for treating type 1 diabetes.

Metabolism and Obesity

The diabetic metabolism is almost identical to the metabolism of people without diabetes. The only difference is the volume and/or effectiveness of the insulin produced by the body. Overweight people with either pre-diabetes or type 2 diabetes most typically produces significantly more insulin than non-diabetic people resulting from a higher ratio of body fat to muscle. The reason for this is insulin resistance, which means that the body cant use its insulin effectively enough. If insulin resistance exists, this therefore reduces the effectiveness of the phase 1 insulin response. The pancreas will release all the insulin it has but it likely won’t be enough because the insulin is less effective.

To overcome this stage, the body has to rely on its phase 2 insulin responses, however, this takes some time and therefore in that time, without sufficient insulin available, blood sugar levels in the type 2 diabetic or pre-diabetic are very likely to rise higher than normal.

  • In type 1 diabetes:  immune system mistakenly makes antibodies that attack the insulin-producing cells in your pancreas, resulting in little or no insulin production.
  • In type 2 diabetes: the pancreas usually produces adequate levels of insulin, but for some reason, the body has trouble responding to insulin

Oral Diabetes Medications

People with type 2 diabetes do not make enough insulin and/or their bodies do not respond well to it, leading to elevated blood sugar levels. Oral diabetes medicines are medicines that you take by mouth to help control your blood sugar level. eight categories of medicine are available in pill form: metformin (a biguanide), sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, meglitinides, inhibitors, sodium glucose transporter 2 and bile acid sequestrants.

Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease

 Cardiovascular complications are responsible for the high morbidity and mortality in people with diabetes. The awareness of physicians for the importance of primary prevention increased lately and numerous strategies have been developed. The spectrum ranges from pharmacologic treatment to vitamins and dietetic interventions. Some interesting concepts such as focusing on exogenous advanced glycation end products have emerged, but definitive results on their clinical relevance are still lacking. A major problem of primary prevention is the choice of the method applied for screening, the criteria used to classify risk patients, as well as the choice of therapy.

Endothelial dysfunction (“functional atherosclerosis”) precedes by decades morphological atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications. People diagnosed with diabetes have an early altered endothelial function. Measurements of endothelial dysfunction can be performed either directly on the coronary arteries or at the level of peripheral microcirculation (brachial or femoral artery) and microcirculation (forearm, hand, or foot). Several noninvasive or invasive methods for the assessment of endothelial dysfunction are available.

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes is diabetes that occurs during pregnancy in women. Gestational diabetes occurs in about 4% of all pregnancies Women’s. It is usually diagnosed at any stages of pregnancy but is more common in the second half and occurs in women who have no prior history of diabetes.  In most cases Gestational diabetes is picked up when blood sugar level is tested during screening. Some women may develop symptoms if their blood sugar level becomes too high. This may lead to difficulties during the delivery and increases the chances of needing a caesarean section. Follow Diabetes Conferences for more details

Clinical Diabetes and Therapeutics

A clinical trial is an approach to precisely test another medication or gadget in patients before it is endorsed by the FDA to be utilized in public. Clinical trials are an important and critical step for having the capacity to have new medications for diabetes and other varied conditions. A case study is a methodology and a strategy that investigates a phenomenon with its real-life context. Case studies and clinical trials are used to develop or assess the quality of the medications being developed.

  • Clinical diagnosis and laboratory tests
  • Diabetes, Prediabetes and Metabolic Syndrome
  • Clinical trials on animal models
  • Novel research and treatment strategies on diabetes
  • Clinical case reports and clinical endocrinology practices
  • Novel Paradigms in Diabetic Complications
  • Clinical presentation and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus for adults

Case Reports and Reviews

The primary point of diabetes is to distinguish the general state of disorders in diabetic patients, there are various case and research studies including animal models and human models. Type 2 diabetes is a cutting-edge pandemic.  Two particular kinds of diabetes, contingent upon when the body fails to produce insulin, the hormone that signals body tissues to utilize glucose: impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose. Researchers are breaking down the information to comprehend the impacts of various medications on the two particular types of diabetes.

  • Clinical research in type-1 diabetes
  • Clinical research in type-2 diabetes

Types in Endocrinology

Endocrinology is a branch of biology and medicine which deals with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions known as hormones. It is concerned with the integration of developmental events proliferation, growth, and differentiation, and the psychological or behavioral activities of metabolism, growth, and development, tissue function, sleep, digestion, respiration, excretion, mood, stress, lactation, movement, reproduction, and sensory perception caused by hormones.

Types in Endocrinology: Type 1 Diabetes, Type 2 Diabetes, Osteoporosis, Thyroid Cancer, Addison's Disease, Cushing's Syndrome, Graves'  Disease,                                                       Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

Diabetic Drug Discovery

Diabetic Medicare covers the fasting blood glucose test, which is a diabetes screening method. Medicare covers two diabetes screening methods every year for beneficiaries who are at high risk for diabetes. Risk factors for diabetes include high blood pressure, history of abnormal triglyceride and sterol levels, obesity, or a history of high glucose levels. If this disorder runs in a family, they may also need regular checkups. Diabetic Medicare may include, Glucose control solution or Lancet devices or Lancets or Therapeutic shoe as prescribed by your doctor. Diabetes Healthcare includes

According to the CMS (Centers for Medicare and Healthcare), 32nd of Medicare outlay is attributed exclusively to the diabetes population. Since its inception, Medicare has expanded over medical coverage of monitoring devices, academic efforts, screening tests, and visits, preventive medical services for its diabetic enrollees. However, the hypoglycemic agents and drugs were excluded from the reimbursement. In 2003, CMS has passed the Medicare Modernization Act that has a drug profit to be administered either through Medicare advantage drug plans or by private sponsored prescription medical plans for implementation in January 2006.


Diabetes and Cancer

Both diabetes and cancer are prevalent diseases are increasing globally. Worldwide, the prevalence of cancer has been difficult to establish because many areas do not have cancer registries, but in 2008 there were an estimated 12.4 million new cancer cases diagnosed. The most commonly diagnosed cancers are lung/bronchus, breast, and colorectal, whereas the most common causes of cancer deaths are lung, stomach, and liver cancer. In the U.S., most commonly diagnosed cancers are prostate, lung/bronchus, and colon/rectum in men and breast, lung/bronchus, and colon/rectum in women. In the world, the population between the ages of 20 and 79 years, an estimated 285 million people, or 6.6%, have diabetes. In 2007, diabetes prevalence in the U.S. was 10.7% of persons aged 20 years and older (23.6 million individuals), with an estimated 1.6 million new cases per year. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form, accounting for 95% of prevalent cases. Worldwide, Cancer is in the 2nd place and Diabetes is in the 12th place leading cause of death. In the U.S., cancer is the 2nd and diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death; the latter is likely an underestimate since diabetes is underreported on death certificates as both a cause and comorbid condition.

Diabetes and Dental Health

All people have tinier bacteria living in their mouth now than there are people on this planet. If they make their home in your gums, you can end up with the periodontal disease. This disease can destroy your gums, all the tissues holding your teeth and even your bones.

Periodontal disease is serious and the most common dental disease affecting those having diabetes, affecting nearly 22% of those diagnosed. Especially with increasing age, poor blood sugar control increases the risk of gum problems.  In fact, people with diabetes are at high risk for gum problems because of poor blood sugar control. With all infections, serious gum disease may cause sugar levels to rise. Diabetes is harder to control because you are more susceptible to infections and are less able to fight the bacteria invading the gums. 

  • Diabetes and Teeth
  • Diabetes and Periodontal Disease
  • Diabetes and gum diseases
  • Oral Changes Associated with Diabetes Mellitus
  • Oral Medicine

Diabetic Diet and Nutrition

Diabetic Nutrition involves a few dietary intercession trials in individuals with pre-diabetes demonstrated that diabetes hazard was decreased by 40% when compared with the control gather took after amid 10 years. Among the people of cardiovascular at high risk, the current trial demonstrates the parts of a Mediterranean eating routine expended over 5 years of follow-up period decreases the cardiovascular illness chance by 30%. The sole distinction is the volume/effectiveness of the insulin produced in the body. There is a procedure through which insulin is produced inside the body of the person. Insulin therapy is usually recommended for patients with diabetes mellitus and an initial A1c level greater than 9%. Insulin therapy is also started as augmentation, beginning at 0.3units/kg or as a replacement, beginning at 0.6 to 1.0units/ kg. Metformin should be continued because it is proven that it will reduce all-cause mortality and cardiovascular risks in diabetic overweight patients.

Diabetic Foot, Ankle & Skin complication

Diabetes can be dangerous to your feet; even a small cut in diabetic patients can produce serious consequences. Diabetes may cause the nerve damage that takes away the sense of your feet. Diabetes may reduce the flow of blood to the feet, making it harder to resist infection or heal an injury. Serious foot problems could result in losing a toe, foot or leg. To avoid foot issues in diabetes patients we need to Inspect your feet daily, Bathe feet in lukewarm, never use hot water, Be gentle when bathing your feet, Moisturize your feet but not between your toes, Cut nails carefully, Never treat corns or calluses yourself, Wear clean & dry socks, Consider socks made specifically for patients living with diabetes, Wear socks to bed, Shake out your shoes and feel the inside before wearing, Keep your feet warm and dry, Consider using an antiperspirant on the soles of your feet, Don't walk on barefoot, Control your diabetes, Do not smoke, Get periodic foot exams. Preventive Foot Care in Diabetes, Caring for Your Feet, Risk factors for Diabetic Foot Ulcers, Diabetic Foot Ulcer Symptoms & Diagnosis, Diabetic Foot Ulcer Treatments & Care, Diabetic Neuropathy and its types, Diabetic Neuropathy Treatment

Molecular Metabolism in Diabetes

Endocrinology and metabolism is a field of medicine; more precisely a sub-specialty of internal medicine, which mainly deals with the investigation and management of sicknesses related to hormones. The human endocrine system involves number of glands. These glands harvest and release hormones which monitor many important functions of our body. When the hormone exits the gland, they reach the bloodstream and are moved to organs and tissues in every part of the body. Endocrinology also concentrates on the endocrine glands and tissues that secrete hormones. The human endocrine system comprises of several glands. These glands harvest and secrete hormones which regulate the body's metabolism, growth, sexual development and function. Hormonal imbalance in our body henceforth leads to diabetes.